vascular/seed plants/plant evolution

June 25, 2010 at 1:26 am (Uncategorized)

Vascular Plants

Emergent plants are more complex than protists and bacteria, so they have a wider range of adaptations, but evolution has eliminated their capacity to use something other than oxygen as an energy source, i.e. they cannot respire anaerobically.

Plants are sessile (stuck in one place), but it’s only their roots that are stuck in the anoxic or salty environment of wetland substrate. A flood sensitive plant when inundated rapidly loses its oxygen supply to the roots. This shuts down aerobic metabolism thus reducing nearly all metabolic activities such as cell division and nutrient absorption. Anaerobic glycolysis (same thing your muscles do when you ask them for a “burst” of energy) works for some needs inititally, but it is inefficient and toxic endproducts accumulate. These two problems will cause death fairly rapidly, as you know if you overwater your houseplants.

The five terrestrial adaptations include the seed, reduction of the gametophyte generation, heterospory, ovules, and pollen


There was little life on land 500 million years ago, although the oceans abounded with diverse photosynthetic organisms, as well as species in the Monera, Protoctista, and Animalia kingdoms. Land plants appear to have evolved from photosynthetic, aquatic ancestors about 500 million years ago, probably from the Chlorophyta, or green algae. Both groups use chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b as photosynthetic pigments, store their energy reserves as starch, and have cellulose in their cell walls.

The evolution of the terrestrial habit required special adaptations of reproductive and vegetative tissues for protection against desiccation. The most significant adaptation of the reproductive tissues is enclosure of the sex cells (egg and sperm) within specialized tissues, and retention of the fertilized egg as it develops into a multicellular embryo. The most significant adaptation of the vegetative tissue is development of a parenchymatous cell organization, in which unspecialized cells (parenchyma) are embedded in a dense matrix of cells. This reduces water loss by reducing the overall surface area of the plant per cell, and also provides the plant with a body matrix for differentiation of specialized tissues.

The life cycle of all plants consists of an alternation of generations, in which a haploid gametophyte (tissue in which each cell has one copy of each chromosome) alternates with a diploid sporophyte (tissue in which each cell has two copies of each chromosome). A major trend in plant evolution has been the increasing dominance of the sporophyte. Chlorophyta (green algae), the ancestors of land plants, have a dominant gametophyte and greatly reduced sporophyte. Bryophyta, the most primitive land plants, have a more elaborate sporophyte than Chlorophyta, although their gametophyte is still dominant. Free-sporing vascular plants (Filicinophyta, Lycopodophyta, and Sphenophyta) have a somewhat more dominant sporophyte phase than gametophyte phase. However, seed plants, the most advanced of the land plants, have a greatly reduced gametophyte, and a dominant sporophyte.

Read more: Plant – Evolution Of Plants


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Adora Svitak: What Adults Can Learn From Kids (A reaction paper)

May 20, 2010 at 2:06 am (REVIEWS) ()

Playful, imaginable, full of aspiration and has the determination to learn and adopt a new skill. These are some of the traits kids possess. What adults can learn from kids? The title says it all. Adult knows how to propose a lot of ideas out of a raw idea, but kids could give very fresh new ideas out of nothing. What comprises it all? A blank mind because of his innocence.

Kids can be full of inspiring aspirations and hopeful thinking. They keep dreaming and make themselves believe that it could possible happen. That is a good thing because in order to make anything a reality, you have to dream about it first.

Kids don’t think about the limitations. They just think of good ideas. One good example is my niece. I used to give them a toy named Lego. I let them play it to make them busy and to avoid running and shouting. As I watched them play and create different things using the Lego, I noticed that through there simple imaginations, they are able to build and create things out of these Lego blocks. They build buildings, robots, castle and a lot more using the Lego blocks because they believe they can create it using those unmatched blocks. They rely on their magnificent imaginations. They knew that everything is possible.

School. The house of knowledge, a place of learning and this is where the biggest part of development occurs. An educator and the one being educated, a believer and the one who keeps in believing, a teacher and a student, a knowledgeable adult and an imaginative kid, different points on how an adult and a youngster is called. A school, a teacher and student, from here we could consider that these are some of the most important factors that embodies the concept of learning.

Learning does not mean that an educator needs to teach all the things that he knows to a growing kid. Learning between grownups and kids should be reciprocal. Kids grow and so they mature. They like to play and build things out of their innocent minds. Grownups could try to relate to it and start opening their minds about what a kid is actually doing. Kids developed and learned a lot of things as time pass by while adults help them grow and understand how these developments occur. The exchange of learning between an adult and a kid goes reciprocal. The same process with same effect.

“If you don’t trust someone, you place hesitations on them.”

Childish acts. A child will always be a child and they are still going to play anytime they want. They will cry whenever they want. They will ask for assistance and seek for attention. The adult population should learn and take into account the wishes of the young population.

It is a requirement in humans’ life that we are required to become kid and had an innocent mind. It is what we call, the stage of development. Take a look at a College student who is already Eighteen years old and is licensed to drive and allowed drink. Considering that his of proper and legal age, it always comes to a point that someone would actually say that he is childish. In reality, grownups could not really avoid these acts because people once passed by stage of being young. It is the best part of our lives where attention and care is putted to us. No responsibilities and hard work in order to survive.

What’s even worse than restriction is when adults often underestimate kid’s abilities. Kids love challenges. They like taking things as a game. They love doing things even though expectations of adults are low. But even though the expectations are low, they sink the challenge and give it a try. Restrictions could not help in developing kid’s abilities well. It could only make a hindrance to their development. Adults should put their trust to their kid’s abilities because this will help them to learn how to face life and learn how to survive. As what the saying says, “Practice makes perfect.”

Kids grown up and becomes adult as time passes by. They are our future and next generation. They will be the adults who will take our turns and be on the lead when we are old. The goal is not to turn kids into some kind of adults but rather better adults that some have been. The way progress happens is because new generations are new era’s grown and develop and become better than the previous ones. Kids grow and so does opportunity and responsibility. Kids are the future leaders and so adults should give opportunities that will mould them for a brighter tomorrow.

Learn to lend ears from kids today because they are the leaders of tomorrow. They are the future generation of the adult population. Kids are the ones who are going to take good care of the next generation, the one who will bring this world forward. They are the future Doctors, Lawyers, Scientists, and other important personalities of tomorrow. They are the ones who are next in line in serving the world for the better.

A kid will always be a kid but always remember, from his childish acts, you will learn something new. From his innocence, you will learn how to value education and be an educator yourself. How a kid develops his life depends on the environment he grew up. We have to mould them to be the best and don’t let their skills and talents be put to waste. Kids dreams for better dreams. No limitations and no hesitations.

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Steve Jobs: How to Live Before You Die (A Reaction Paper)

May 20, 2010 at 2:05 am (Uncategorized) ()

Life does not only depend in any success and failure that we are about and is going to face all through our lives. As I go watch the Fifteen minutes commencement speech that Steve Jobs, the once-and-again CEO of Apple who has spearheaded a few of the most iconic products in technology, entertainment and design,told in the commencement exercise held in Stanford University, I realized that everything happens because there is a purpose.

During his speech on the said commencement exercise, he told three different stories about his life. The first story was entitled, “Connecting the Dots”. He talks about how he patterned his life into the dots that represents each important event that happened in his life. He tackled his journey on what he did during his early days in college especially on his studies. The second story was about how he ruled his work “as a job” during the up’s and downs of his career. He also told and connected love as one of the major factor of his success and survival during his own utopia. His third and final story talks about death and how an individual should manage and give importance to life. Life, work with a combination of love, and death. Three different stories with one purpose. To teach a lesson.

“You can’t connect the dots by looking forward; you can only them by looking backwards. So you have to trust that the dots will somehow connect in your future. You have to trust in something, your guts, destiny, life, and karma, whatever. Believing that the dots will connect down the road will give you the confidence to follow your heart even when it leads you off the well worn path, and that will make all the difference.”

Everything happens for a reason. Life goes on. As a matter of fact, existence does not only shows that an individual could either choose to live for the better or for worse because the time and effort exerted was considered wasted, rather it is therefore concluded that each action did on the past was considered and represented as a dot that will constitute the outcomes of his actions in life.

During Steve Jobs early days in college, he enrolled himself to Reed College which was a very expensive college back then. After Eighteen months of studying, he dropped out. The outcome of his action turned out and he did not be able to finish his college. In fact, he NEVER graduated college.

In the middle of hearing this story, I now understand why there are lots of students who keep on dropping their subjects out and do not mind if they will fail or not while they were enrolled in their respective subjects. Maybe up to now they are still seeking for the right time that will really suit their interests and will match their outlooks in life. Assurance of a good life and better future does not only depend on good grades. Experience, proper training, and an excellent application of skills acquired and knowledge learned all through an individual’s life constitutes it all.

“I had been rejected but I was still in love… and so I decided to start over”

Every rejection does not mean that you need to stop and admit defeat. Sometimes it is a signal that you need to exert more effort and improve what you are doing to receive a better outcome.

I maybe rejected a lot of times but I don’t see and accept it as rejection itself. Rather, I received it as a guide on how I will make improvement in driving my motivation towards my studies and as well as my goals in life. It strikes my attention when the speaker told those words because I started to realized that I could choose whether I will just improve what I’m doing whenever I failed and got rejected or I could start all over again and make a new beginning. The heaviness of being successful was placed by the lightness of being a beginner again.

“If you live each day and as it was your last day someday you’ll most certainly be right.”

Remembering that someday I am going to die helps me from achieving and keeps setting goals all throughout my life. I always say that being productive is one of the best ways of expressing the things that I really want to do in life. Death is the destination we all share. No one has ever escaped it.

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January 14, 2010 at 5:37 pm (POEMS/QUOTATIONS/STORIES) ()

Never give up. Learn to trust your abilities and rely on your instincts when you are planning to achieve what you really want in your life. Start setting for a higher goal and pay more attention in achieving it.-imee vitug

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Humanities (1)

August 11, 2009 at 7:28 am (Uncategorized)

Abstract –              A 20th century style of painting in which nonrepresentational lines, colors, shapes, and forms replace accurate visual depiction of objects, landscape, and figures. The subjects often stylized, blurred, repeated or broken down into basic forms so that it becomes unrecognizable. Intangible subjects such as thoughts, emotions, and time are often expressed in abstract art form.

Art Nouveau –       A painting, printmaking, decorative design, and architectural style developed in England in the 1880s. Art Nouveau, primarily an ornamental style, was not only a protest against the sterile Realism, but against the whole drift toward industrialization and mechanization and the unnatural artifacts they produced. The style is characterized by the usage of sinuous, graceful, cursive lines, interlaced patterns, flowers, plants, insects and other motifs inspired by nature.

Cubism –               An art style developed in 1908 by Picasso and Braque whereby the artist breaks down the natural forms of the subjects into geometric shapes and creates a new kind of pictorial space. In contrast to traditional painting styles where the perspective of subjects is fixed and complete, cubist work can portray the subject from multiple perspectives.

Dadaism –             An art style founded by Hans Arp in Zurich after WW1 which challenged the established canons of art, thoughts and morality etc. Disgusted with the war and society in general, Dadaist expressed their feelings by creating “non-art.” The term Dada, nonsense or baby-talk term, symbolizes the loss of meaning in the European culture. Dada art is difficult to interpret since there is no common foundation.

Expressionism –    An art movement of the early 20th century in which traditional adherence to realism and proportion was replaced by the artist’s emotional connection to the subject. These paintings are often abstract, the subject matter distorted in color and form to emphasize and express the intense emotion of the artist.

Impressionism –    An art movement founded in France in the last third of the 19th century. Impressionist artists sought to break up light into its component colors and render its ephemeral play on various objects. The artist’s vision was intensely centered on light and the ways it transforms the visible world. This style of painting is characterized by short brush strokes of bright colors used to recreate visual impressions of the subject and to capture the light, climate and atmosphere of the subject at a specific moment in time. The chosen colors represent light which is broken down into its spectrum components and recombined by the eyes into another color when viewed at a distance (an optical mixture). The term was first used in 1874 by a journalist ridiculing a landscape by Monet called Impression – Sunrise.

Pop Art –               A style of art which seeks its inspiration from commercial art and items of mass culture (such as comic strips, popular foods and brand name packaging). Pop art was first developed in New York City in the 1950’s and soon became the dominant avant-garde art form in the United States.

Realism –               A style of painting which depicts subject matter (form, color, space) as it appears in actuality or ordinary visual experience without distortion or stylization.

Romanticism –      An art style which emphasizes the personal, emotional and dramatic through the use of exotic, literary or historical subject matter.

Surrealism –          An art style developed in Europe in the 1920’s, characterized by using the subconscious as a source of creativity to liberate pictorial subjects and ideas. Surrealist paintings often depict unexpected or irrational objects in an atmosphere of fantasy, creating a dreamlike scenario.

Symbolism –         An art style developed in the late 19th century characterized by the incorporation of symbols and ideas, usually spiritual or mystical in nature, which represent the inner life of people. Traditional modeled, pictorial depictions are replaced or contrasted by flat mosaic-like surfaces decoratively embellished with figures and design elements.

Trompe l’oeil (Trick of the Eye) – A style of painting in which architectural details are rendered in extremely fine detail in order to create the illusion of tactile (tangible) and spatial qualities. This form of painting was first used by the Romans thousands of years ago in frescoes and murals.

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The Story Behind the Writing of New Moon

March 27, 2009 at 2:51 am (NEW MOON, TWILIGHT SAGA)

**A note: I don’t pull any punches here, so if you haven’t read New Moon and you don’t want to be spoiled, don’t read this.**

Writing a sequel is a very different experience than writing a story. It was for me, at least.

If you’ve read the story behind Twilight, then you know that I didn’t set out to write a novel or begin a career as an author. I was just writing down a story for my personal enjoyment, letting it grow as it would and lead where it would. No pressure, just fun.

The first sequel I wrote to Twilight—Forever Dawn—was more of the same. I wasn’t planning a sequel any more than I was planning to write a book in the first place. Originally, Twilight had a more defined ending. But, when it was ended, I started writing epilogues. After I’d written three epilogues, all of them over a hundred pages long, I realized I wasn’t ready to stop writing about Bella and Edward. One of those epilogues turned into Forever Dawn.

(People often ask me if I’m ever going to make Forever Dawn public. The answer is no. For one thing, it’s not great—it’s downright embarrassing in some places. However, some of the content will work as a loose outline for book four, so I can’t tell you what happened, either.)

I was about three hundred pages into Forever Dawn when my life got turned upside down. Twilight was going to be published. People were going to read what I was writing. More specifically, young adults were going to be reading what I was writing. Unintentionally, I’d written a young adult novel. I realized pretty quickly that Forever Dawn did not follow the rules of YA. Because I was caught up in the story, I finished Forever Dawn anyway, knowing that it would never see the light of day; I gave it to my big sister as a birthday gift. And then I started on the real sequel.

The biggest non-YA thing I’d done with Forever Dawn was this: I’d pretty much passed over the rest of Bella’s high school experience entirely, skipping ahead to a time in her life with more mature themes. So, as I began to sketch out New Moon, I went back to Bella’s senior year of high school and asked my little cast of characters, “What happened?”

I swiftly regretted asking them for the story. Because they gave me a story I wasn’t expecting. More specifically, Edward told me something I didn’t want to hear.

I should probably mention here that I am not crazy (that I know of), it’s just that I am a character writer. I write my stories because of my characters; they are the motivation and the reward. The difficulty with strong, defined characters, though, is that you can’t make them do something that is out of character. They have to be who they are and, as a writer, they’re often out of your control.

As I started plotting New Moon (untitled at that point), it became clear that Edward was Edward, and he would have to behave as only Edward would. And, because of that, Edward was leaving.

NO! I didn’t want Edward to leave. I pitched a fit every bit as violent and tearful as those I’ve seen in New Moon discussion forums. I tried to talk him out of it. I presented him with other plot options. I begged. Edward remained unmoved.

Someday, when Midnight Sun (Edward’s version of Twilight) is available, I think you’ll understand better what was going on in the boy’s head. See, just as Bella doesn’t think she’s good enough for Edward, Edward sees himself as a soulless monster destroying Bella’s life and endangering her afterlife. The incident with Jasper acts as a catalyst, forcing him to act. He is determined to save Bella. He thinks the best way to do this is to take the vampires out of her life.

Is he being silly? In some ways, yes. But he can’t see any other way to protect Bella. Edward’s dealing with the idea that if he hadn’t been quick enough, if he hadn’t read Jasper’s thoughts just in the nick of time, then would that—death—have been better for Bella than a life with Edward? If she died at eighteen and went to heaven, wouldn’t that be better than an immortal but soulless and damned existence? Edward thinks so. However, he knows he’d never be able to watch her die. Consequently, he’d better get away from her before something happens that makes biting her a necessity…

So there I was, with Edward leaving. It was a hard pill to swallow, but once I accepted the inevitability of it, I had an interesting question on my hands. (And writers live for interesting questions.)

WHAT IF… What if true love left you? Not some ordinary high school romance, not some random jock boyfriend, not anyone at all replaceable. True love. The real deal. Your other half, your true soul’s match. What happens if he leaves?

The answer is different for everyone. Juliet had her version, Marianne Dashwood had hers, Isolde and Catherine Earnshaw and Scarlett O’Hara and Anne Shirley all had their ways of coping.

I had to answer the question for Bella. What does Bella Swan do when true love leaves her? Not just true love, but Edward Cullen! None of those other heroines lost an Edward (Romeo was a hothead, Willoughby was a scoundrel, Tristan had loyalty issues, Heathcliff was pure evil, Rhett had a mean streak and cheated with hookers, and sweet Gilbert was much more of a Jacob than an Edward). So what happens when True Love in the form of Edward Cullen leaves Bella?

I let Bella answer the question for herself, writing to see what she would do. It was hard to write her pain, because I had to live it to write it, and I was often writing through my tears. At the same time, it was always interesting. Bella surprised me with her grit and dogged determination. She pushed through the agony, living for others—Charlie in this case—as has always been her style.

(Side note: there are those who think Bella is a wuss. There are those who think my stories are misogynistic—the damsel in distress must be rescued by strong hero.

To the first accusation, I can only say that we all handle grief in our own way. Bella’s way is no less valid than any other to my mind. Detractors of her reaction don’t always take into account that I’m talking about true love here, rather than high school infatuation.

I emphatically reject the second accusation. I am all about girl power—look at Alice and Jane if you doubt that. I am not anti-female, I am anti-human. I wrote this story from the perspective of a female human because that came most naturally, as you might imagine. But if the narrator had been a male human, it would not have changed the events. When a human being is totally surrounded by creatures with supernatural strength, speed, senses, and various other uncanny powers, he or she is not going to be able to hold his or her own. Sorry. That’s just the way it is. We can’t all be slayers. Bella does pretty well I think, all things considered. She saves Edward, after all. Side note/rant over. Back to the story.)

And thus was born the basic premise of New Moon, and with it the title. To follow after Twilight, I needed a time of day to reflect the mood of the sequel. As this is the blackest period of Bella’s life, I thought it appropriate to name the book after the darkest kind of night, a night with no moon.

When the advanced reading copies began to fall into the hands of my fans, I asked people read New Moon twice, promising that I would explain why later. It’s later, and this is why: the first time through New Moon, I’ve found that readers are so anxious about the absence of Edward that they can’t settle into the middle portion of the book. They skim and speed read and flip ahead until, at last, they find him again. However, at that point they’ve missed the main section of the novel almost completely. On a second reading, knowing that Edward will return to the story at the proper place and time, the reader can slow down and enjoy the wondrousness that is Jacob Black.

And with that as a segue, on to the benefits!

I didn’t realize until I was working on the resolution how much my characters had gained from this experience. Vital stuff. Without this painful separation, Bella might never have realized that Edward really is hers to keep. No matter how perfect she thinks he is, or how imperfect she thinks she is, he belongs to her. Words can’t quite capture the life-changing nature of this knowledge for Bella.

Equally as cataclysmic—Edward finally realizes the intensity of Bella’s feelings for him, something he has always underestimated. Here’s the thing about Edward: he knows human nature pretty well. He’s seen a hundred thousand human relationships from the inside, and none of them have come close to touching the depth and everlasting devotion of Carlisle’s and Esme’s love, or Alice’s and Jasper’s, or even Rosalie’s and Emmett’s. Can you blame him for thinking himself—after one hundred years of immortal experience—capable of a more profound love than his eighteen-year-old human girlfriend? Edward is, understandably, a bit of a know-it-all. He learns a lot through this experience, the most important being that Bella’s feelings for him are an exception to the human rule. Something else he learns (not quite as important, but still good to know) is that, despite all his knowledge, he is fully able to make hideous mistakes in judgment.

Ah, and then there is my favorite gift that New Moon gave to me: Jacob Black.

Jacob’s development into a major character was a strange journey. Originally, Jacob was just a device. In Twilight, Bella needed a way to find out the truth about Edward, and the conveniently located Quileute Tribe, with all their fantastic legends, provided a cool option for that revelation. And so Jacob was born—born to tell Bella and Edward’s secret.

Something happened then that I didn’t expect. Jacob was my first experience with a character taking over—a minor character developing such roundness and life that I couldn’t keep him locked inside a tiny role. (Since Jacob, this has reoccurred with several other meant-to-be-minor characters. I really love it when this happens, though it often destroys my outlines.) From the very beginning, even when Jacob only appeared in chapter six of Twilight, he was so alive. I liked him. More than I should for such a small part. Bella liked him. Her instinctive trust and affection came without my intervention. And it wasn’t just us; my agent did, too. “I love that Jacob kid,” Jodi said (or something to that effect-this all happened in 2003). My editor agreed. “Can we get more Jacob in the story?” Megan asked.

Oh yes, we could!

I was writing New Moon and editing Twilight simultaneously. So, when Jacob Black started taking over New Moon, I was able to go back and weave Jacob and Billy throughout Twilight more centrally.

Lots of people give me more credit than I deserve; they think I knew Jacob was a werewolf from the very beginning. This is not the case. Twilight was supposed to be a stand alone novel, remember. There was no thought of werewolves in my mind as I wrote it. The Quileute (Quill-yoot) legends Jacob tells Bella in chapter six of Twilight are all genuine Quileute stories that I learned when I was researching the tribe (which is a real tribe with a truly fascinating and mystical history). All actual Quileute legends, except for the vampire myth about the ‘cold ones.’ I latched onto the wolf story (the actual Quileute legend claims that the tribe descended from wolves transformed by a sorcerer) because it fit with my sketchy knowledge of vampires and werewolves always being at each others’ throats (ha ha, pun intended). The dream Bella had of Jacob transforming into a wolf to protect her had no foreshadowing significance at the time. It was just my way of letting Bella’s subconscious articulate the situation.

Of course, I of all people should know that dreams can have a serious impact on your life.

Bella’s wolf dream was always one of my favorite visual images from Twilight. When I started working on New Moon, that image stuck with me. And I thought to myself, wouldn’t it be cool if it was true—if ALL of Jacob’s legends were founded in absolute fact? What if Jacob was descended from wolves?

It all started to come together then. Sam on the beach in Twilight was no longer just a believer in old traditions—he was the first contemporary wolf. Billy’s warnings were more vital—he had concrete evidence on his hands, rather than just suspicions. And Jacob, my poor, sweet Jacob, had a whole secret heritage just waiting to come crashing down on him.

At that point all the crucial supports of the story were in place, and I only had to write it. Ha. Easier said then done.

It’s hard to explain how joyous the writing process was for me when I was creating Twilight. It was something I did for fun and excitement, with no concern for what anyone else might think, because no one else was ever going to read it. With New Moon, I knew people were going to read it. And some of those people were going to have bright red pens in hand while reading. I knew enough about the editing process to know that there were painful changes ahead; the parts I loved now might not make the final cut. I was going to have to rethink and revise and rework. This made it very hard to put the words down, and I had a horrible feeling much like stage fright the whole time I was writing.

It took about five months, but the editing process was much longer and more difficult than the same process with Twilight. New Moon was a very hard story to tell, not only emotionally, but also functionally. It needed a lot of work. The New Moon outtakes I posted explain some of the bigger renovations that I had to make.

The good news is that I got over—or rather got used to—the stage fright. Book three was much easier in a multitude of ways. I learned a lot through the New Moon experience, and I grew as a writer. Even better, my characters grew and matured in interesting ways that gave me so much to work with throughout the rest of the series! I’m writing book four at this moment in time, and let me tell you, Forks is a very exciting place to be these days.

credits for:

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I hate my self for loving him like this!

February 9, 2009 at 12:39 pm (I-ME-MYSELF) ()

Never in my mind that I dreamed of falling inlove with my third degree cousin. It’s just that, the closeness that we had before started to grow and developed into an ideal but forbidden love. My cousin and I never grew up together. In fact, we only knew each other during our cousin’s debut. He does not knows me and i doesn’t know him too.

“You must know each other, so that one day if you’re going to see each other, your not just going to ignore one another. He is your cousin. She is your cousin.You two are cousins.” my mom said.

We got each others number and started to go out. We started to build and enjoy each other’s company. I started to fall inlove with him. Same as him. He always says “you are not my cousin. I love you. We can do it. Whatever it takes.” I hold on to those words. I believed him. I loved him.
But then,he failed. He broke his promise. I don’t know what happened. It happened too fast.

Up to now, I’m still like this. Waiting for him. Holding on to his promise. But I know, even if I’ll wait for him for thousands of years, nothings gonna happen. He will not come back. He will not love me. He’s lost. Forever.

I hope I could turn back the time. The time we are together. The memories we had together. I can’t afford to lose him. Never.

He’s not going to read this. I know.

But I’m hoping that one day, you will still come back and fulfill your promises. I will forever be loving you. No matter what it makes. I ‘ll be waiting.

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January 8, 2009 at 3:34 am (NEW MOON, TWILIGHT SAGA) ()

What is New Moon?
New Moon is a movie based on the book of the same name. The book is the second installment of the Twilight series by Stephenie Meyer. The book was originally published September 6, 2006.

Who will be directing New Moon?
Chris Weitz, director of About a Boy and The Golden Compass, is the director. He has replaced the director of the prevoious installment of the Twilight series, Catherine Hardwicke.

What is New Moon about?
Here are two official summaries of the movie:
“In NEW MOON, Bella Swan (Kristen Stewart) is devastated by the abrupt departure of her vampire love, Edward Cullen (Robert Pattinson) but her spirit is rekindled by her growing friendship with the irresistible Jacob Black. Suddenly she finds herself drawn into the world of the werewolves, ancestral enemies of the vampires, and finds her loyalties tested.”
“After Bella (Stewart) recovers from the vampire attack that almost claimed her life, she looks to celebrate her birthday with Edward (Pattinson) and his family. However, a minor accident during the festivities results in Bella’s blood being shed, a sight that proves too intense for the Cullens, who decide to leave the town of Forks, Washington for Bella and Edward’s sake. Initially heartbroken, Bella finds a form of comfort in reckless living, as well as an even-closer friendship with Jacob Black.”

Is there a script?
Yes, screenwriter Mellissa Rosenberg has delivered a script. Rosenberg also wrote the screenplay for Twilight.

When will New Moon be released?
The studio is planning to release the film towards the end of 2009 or early 2010. The tentative official date is November 20th, 2009.

Who will be in New Moon?
So far, the confirmed cast is Robert Pattinson as Edward Cullen, Kristen Stewart as Bella Swan and Billy Burke as Charlie Swan.

When does filming start?
Production is beginning soon, and filming is scheduled to begin in March of 2009.

Where is the movie being filmed?

According to the casting calls, it will be filmed in Los Angeles, Vancouver, and Portland.

Why is it called New Moon?
According to author Stephenie Meyer, “The term “new moon” refers to the phase of the moon opposite a full moon. It is when the sun is on the opposite side of the moon from us and thus the bright side of the moon is not visible from earth. This is the darkest kind of night. New Moon is the darkest period of Bella’s life.”

Can I be in New Moon?
Casting is ongoing for the New Moon movie. See this page for more casting info:

What comes after New Moon?
Eclipse is the next book in the Twilight quadrology, and filming for Ecliipse will occur immediately after filming for New Moon.

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Tyler Lautner STILL becomes JaCob BLack in nEW mOON

January 8, 2009 at 2:44 am (NEW MOON, TWILIGHT SAGA) ()

New Moon: The Movie

***January 7, 2009***

Good news about New Moon from director Chris Weitz:

I’m very happy to announce that Taylor Lautner will be playing Jacob Black in New Moon and that he’s doing so with the enthusiastic support of Summit Entertainment, the producers, and Stephenie Meyer.

The characters in Stephenie’s books go through extraordinary changes of circumstance and also appearance; so it is not surprising that there has been speculation about whether the same actor would portray a character who changes in so many surprising ways throughout the series. But it was my first instinct that Taylor was, is, and should be Jacob, and that the books would be best served by the actor who is emotionally right for the part. I think that fans of Twilight the book and the movie will be surprised by the Jacob Black that Taylor will bring to the screen in New Moon; and I’m looking forward to working with him and the rest of the cast in realizing the film.

very best

Chris Weitz

I’d just like to add that I was very much a part of this decision. My first priority was always what was best for New Moon—what was going to give us the best possible movie. I’m truly thrilled that Taylor was the one who proved to the director, to Summit, and to me that he is the best possible Jacob we could have. And I’m very much looking forward to seeing what he’s going to bring to Jacob’s character this year.

– Steph

here is the link…

[Updated on: , 01/08/09 08:44 AM ]

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December 5, 2008 at 11:47 am (FILIPINO) ()


















Ang wika ay isang bahagi ng talastasan. Ito ay kalipunan ng mga simbolo, tunog at mga batas kaugnay nito nupang maipahayag ang nais sabihin ng kaisipan. Ang wika ay isang pamamaraang ginagamit sa pagpapaabot ng kaisipan at damdamin sa pamamagitan ng pagsasalita at pagsusulat. Isang likas na pamamaraan at paghahatid ng mga kaisipan, damdamin at mga hangarin sa pamamagitan ng isang kaparaanang lunikha ng tunog. Isang kabuuan ng mga sagisag sa paraang binibigkas na sa pamamagitan nito ay nakakaugnay, nagkakaunawaan at nagkakaisa ang mga kaanib ng isang pulutong ng mga tao.


Ang komunikasyon ay ang pakikipagpalitan ng kuro-kuro, opinion o ideya sa pamamagitan g kuro-kuro , opinyon, impormasyon, o ideya sa pamamagitan ng pakikipagtalastasan sa pamamagitan ng pagsasalita, pagsusulat, o sa pamamagitan ng senyas o signal. Napakalaki ng bahagi ng komunikasyon sa ating buhay. Isipin mo nalang kung wala ito, pano natin maihahayag an gating pangangailangan?”Ang mga sanggo, paano nila maihahayag sa kanilang ina na sila ay nagugutom na.Dahil sa paghahatiran at pagpapalitan ng ideya, impormasyon, karanasan at mga saloobin ng tao, nagaganap angb iba’t ibang uri ng Gawain. Ito ang nagbibigay daan tungo sa pagkakaunawaan ng tao.


Ang edukasyon ay kinabibilangan ng pagtuturo at pag-aaral ng isang kasanayan, at saka ilang bagay na di masyadong nadadama ngunit higit na malalim; ang pagbabahagi ng kaalaman, mabuting paghusga at karunungan. Isa sa mga pangunahing layunin ng edukasyon ang ipahayag ang kultura sa mga sumusunod na saling lahi. Napakahalaga ng mga pangarap dahil minsan sinabi sa akin ng isang napakagaling na guro, kasama at kaibigan, na kapag tayo ay may pangarap, malayo ang ating mararating. Kapag tayo ay may pangarap, nagkakaroon ng halaga at kabuluhan ang ating buhay. Kapag tayo ay may pangarap, nagiging masigasig tayo sa kilos at gawa. Kapag tayo ay may pangarap, may nagagawa tayong kakaiba, may nagagawa tayong mga bagay na sa paglipas ng panahon ay siyang magtataguyod ng ating alaala dahil ang mga makikinabang sa mga bunga ng mga pangarap na iyon ang siyang dadakila sa ating mga pangalan.



Itinatadhana ng panukalang batas na ito, bukod sa iba pa, ang pagtatatag ng 12 taong sistema ng batayang edukasyon bilang pagkilala sa pandaigdigang pamantayan; pamumuhunan sa pagsasapanahon, pagsasanay at espesyalisasyon ng mga guro upang matiyak ang kalidad ng pagtuturo sa bansa; at pagsasa-institusyon ng paggamit ng kinagisnang wika bilang midyum ng pagtuturo para sa mga batang mag-aaral sa antas elementarya.Ang komunikasyon ay ginagamit natin sa edukasyon partikular sa tuwirang pagsasalita at pagbabahagi. Sa pamamagitan ng mga kagamitang pangturo o visual aid na tumatayo bilang anyo ng komunikasyon ay naipapahayag ng guro ang kanyang mga nais ituro. Sa pamamagitan nito ay naihahatid ng dalawang panig (mag-aaral at guro) ang pagpapalitan ng iba’t ibang konseptong pangkaisipan at pang-emosyonal. Ang pagbabahagi ng kaalaman ay isang paraan ng pahahatid ng impormasyon, ideya, atityud o kaugalian mula sa isang tao tungo sa kanyang kapwa


‘Nalilimot ng bawat isa sa inyo na habang napag-iingatan ng isang bayan ang kaniyang wika,napag-iingatan din nito ang katibayan ng kanyang paglaya,katulad ng pagpapanatili ng isang tao sa kaniyang kasarinlan,upang mapanatili niya ang kaniyang sariling paraan ng pag-iisip.Ang wika ang pag-iisip ng bayan.Ikagalak ninyong may katiyakan ang inyong kasarinlan:ipagsanggalang ito ng mga masilakbong damdamin ng tao.”-Simoun (El Filibusterismo).Ang wika at panitikan natin ay buhay na katibayan ng ating kultura at kasaysayan. Ipinapagunita nito na mayroon tayong mga karanasan at kabatirang natamo sa ating pagdanas ng kolonisasyon at sa ating ginawang paglaban sa paghahari ng mga dayuhan.


Ang wika ay instrumento ng tao upang maipahayag ang kanyang kaisipan o saloobin sa isang tao habang ang komunikasyon ay ang pakikipagpalitan ng kuro-kuro, opinyon, impormasyon o ideya sa pamamagitan ng pakikipagtalastasan. Ang wika ay essensiyal sa komunikasyon dahil ito ang intrumento upang maipahayag ng tao ang nais niyang sabihin.Kung walang wika ay maplilitan tayo na maipagpatuloy ang makalumang paraan ng pakikipagusap gamit ang mga tunog, simbolo at pagguhit. Ang wika ang syang nagsisilbing instrumento ng komunikasyon,tagapag-ingat at tagapagpalaganap ng kaalaman, tagapagbuklod ng bansa at tagalingang ng maikling pag-iisip. Ang wika ay ang ginagamit upang makisalamuha sa iba o makipagkumunikasyon.



Babae ang napili naming larawan dahil sumisimbolo ito sa Mother Earth. Bakit tinawag na Mother Earth? Ang Mother Earth ay parang Ina nating lahat. Ang ina ang nag-aalaga satin, simula noong tayoý pinanganak, sa paglaki natin, hanggang sa may asawa, hanggat sila ay nabubuhay nandyan prn cla, nagpapapancn. Ang sinapupunan ng mga kababaihan ay nanggaling ang isang sanggol. Simbolo ng isang uliran at huwarang babae ng ating makaluma at makabagong panahon. Tulad ng ating ina siyang ehemplo na dapat tularan at iukit ang kanyang pangalan sa isang bagay at maging sa isipan ng ating mga kabataan


Ayon sa mga bisaya:’Ang bawat tattoo at pagkulay sa katawan ay isang kasaysayan ng tagumpay na nakamit o kagitingan na nagampanan. Hindi sila nagpapa-tattoo nang sabay-sabay sa buong katawan, kundi paisa-isa, kaya dati ay matagal ang paglalarawan sa kanilang katawan.’Ang pagsilang ng wika ay nagibibigay buhay sa sibilisasyon. Sa pamamagitan nito, malinaw na nailalarawan ang bawat karanasan at damdamin ng bawat tao. At sa pagkakaroon ng sariling wika ay lubusang naipapahayag ng nakararaming mamamayan ang kanilang kaisipan.AT Isa sa layunin ng edukasyon ay para maipahayag ang kultura sa mga susunod pang salinlahi.


Ang wika ng isang bansa ay masasabi natin na kaluluwa ng isang bansa na siyang nagbibigay buhay dito. Ito ay nagsisilbing tulay na siyang nagdurugtong sa mga komunidad na naninirahan sa isang bansa. Sa pamamagitan nito, ang pagkakaisa at pagkakaunawaan sa bawat tao ay lalong yumayabong.. Ito rin ang nagsisilbing susi ng ating pagkakakilanlan, sa pamamagitan nito, nakikilala ng ibang tao kung sino tayo. Ang wika ay hindi lamang para sa pakikipagkomunikasyon ngunit ito rin ang pundasyon ng ating pagkakakilanlan bilang isang indibidwal at bilang isang bansa.


Sa kabila ng modernisasyon at makabagong teknolohiya ay mapapansin sa aming ilustrasyon ang pagkakaroon ng pagkakapareho. Ang mata ay parehong mata ng tao at hindi isang robot. Ang tao ang sumisimbolo sa karunungan. Ang mata ang nagsisibing isang basehan ng pagkatuto ng tao. Magkapareho ang mga mata nito sapagkat ang wika ay nanatiling parte ng kultura. At kailanman ay hindi mababago. Nadadagdagan at napagyayaman ang kaalaman sa mga ito ngunit ang mga orihinal na konteksto at kahulugan ay magiging pareho parin. Gaya ng isang tao, ang nakikita ng mata ay siyang tumatatak sa isipan. Mananatiling pareho ang ideya at kaalaman. May madadagdag, may mababawas at makakalimutan ngunit hindi mawawala at hindi mabubura sa isipan. Sadyang ginawang natural na mata ang kaliwang mata ng babae sa ilustrasyon sapagkat, ang robot o modernong teknolohiya ay nagagawa ang mga nagagawa ng tao. Ngunit, nagagawa lamang ito sa pamamagitan ng command at pagorganisa ng mga programs. Samantala, ang kaalaman ng tao ay napagyayaman at patuloy na nagagamit sa pang araw-araw na buhay. Isang katotohanan na hindi kayang gawin ng makabagong teknolohiya.

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